Year after year GCSE students will typically do somewhere between 8 and 11 GCSE subjects each. For some of these subjects, they will be categorised into foundation tier or higher tier. Without properly knowing what they mean, these terms can sound incredibly vague and confusing. However, it is important to understand what the differences between these are and what they mean for your GCSE exams and your future.
In short, there are several differences between the foundation and higher tiers. Most notably, the foundation tier is considered easier than the higher tier. This is evident due to a range of factors, such as the maximum grade, for the foundation tier, students can only get up to a grade C/ 5, whereas they can get up to a grade 9 for the higher tier. Also, the exam content and structure of the foundation and higher papers will generally be different as the foundation tier will generally have simpler and shorter questions than the higher tier.
Continue reading to better understand what the terms foundation tier and higher tier mean at GCSE and why they’re important. This article will explain the differences between foundation and higher tier including the differences in grades, the exam papers and the grade boundaries of each.
Table of Contents
What are the differences between GCSE foundation and higher tier?
If you’re studying for your GCSEs, you’ve probably heard the terms “higher” and “foundation”. Knowing the differences between these can be confusing as often you will only be told about which one you do. This can make it difficult to understand what each of these terms actually mean and what the real differences between them are.
There are a range of differences between foundation and higher tier at GCSE. These include the maximum grades you can get for each, the exam content and structures and the grade boundaries. To learn more about each of these factors, check out the sections below.
What are the maximum grades for GCSE foundation and higher tier?
If you’ve heard of the terms, foundation tier and higher tier, one of the first things you may think of is the distinctions in grades. This is especially as it is one of the most noticeable differences even for those who aren’t studying the courses themselves.
At GCSE, for the foundation tier, your grade will be capped at a C grade or a grade 5. This means that you are able to pass the GCSE but that you won’t be able to get one of the top grades.
In the lettered grading system, a grade C is a pass and so you will either get a C and pass or fail that GCSE. However, in the numbered grading system, a grade 5 is considered a “strong pass” and there is still a grade 4, which is considered a “standard pass”. If you would like to learn more about the different passes in the numbered grading system at GCSE, check out this article by the BBC.
For the higher tier, students won’t have their grade capped and so are able to get up to the top grade, an A* or grade 9. While in the numbered grading system a grade 9 is meant to be slightly above an A*, both grades are incredible achievements.
To learn more about the maximum grades that you can get in the foundation and higher tiers at GCSE, check out this guide by AQA.
What are the minimum grades for GCSE foundation and higher tier?
While the difference with the maximum grade is often the most noticeable difference between the foundation and higher tiers at GCSE, there are still other grade-related differences that are much less talked about. Namely, the fact that the minimum grades that you can get are also different between the foundation and higher tiers.
In the higher tier, the lowest grade other than a U that students can get in the numbered grading system is a grade 3. While this is still a failing grade, it can be considered a near-pass as it is only one grade of the passing grade of a 4. In the lettered grading system, the lowest grade students can get other than a U is an E.
For the foundation tier, students can get a minimum grade of a 1, which is the lowest grade there is before a U. In the lettered grading system, the lowest before a U is a G. While none of these are passing grades for GCSEs, they still show distinctions in how many marks students got.
To learn more about these, check out this guide by AQA.
How are the GCSE foundation tier and higher tier exams different?
As the grades that you can get from these courses differ, it may lead you to wonder if and how the exams themselves are different. The main ways to look at this are based on how students are taught throughout the course and so what content will come up on exams as well as the actual structure and format of the exams themselves.
For the higher tier course, students will typically be taught more content, which will typically be more advanced as well. For example, in GCSE Maths, foundation tier students may not be taught topics, such as the sine rule or the cosine rule, as they won’t need to learn such advanced content for their exams. To learn more about this, check out the Pearson Edexcel GCSE Maths specification by clicking here.
Also, this may even affect how the content is structured on the exams. Using GCSE Maths as an example once more, for topics that have more difficult content, there will likely be proportionally more on the higher paper than on the foundation paper and vice versa.
For example, algebra is a harder topic and so there is 30% of it on the higher tier papers compared to 20% on the foundation tier papers as well as 25% of ratios and proportion on the foundation paper compared to 20% on the higher tier paper. To learn more about this, check out this guide by OCR.
Also, the entire exam structure for the papers and the question types may be different for foundation and higher tiers. For example, for GCSE Modern Languages, the questions come in different formats and the papers last different lengths of time.
In the writing paper, the last question for the foundation paper is the same or very similar to the first question on the higher paper and other than both containing a translation into the foreign language, the questions are generally different. To learn more about this, check out this page by AQA to see the specification at a glance for GCSE French.
Are the grade boundaries for GCSE foundation and higher tier different?
Another way to measure the differences between the foundation and higher tiers is by looking at their grade boundaries. In the UK, grade boundaries are the minimum raw mark that students need to get on order to get a specific grade. They are set by the exam board and changed each year in order to adapt to the specific set of students who’ve taken the exam.
Due to this, looking at the differences in grade boundaries for foundation and higher tier papers, can show us how difficult students have found the paper compared to each other. In this way, a higher grade boundary suggests that students found the exam easier as more students were able to get more marks, increasing the grade boundary and vice versa. To learn more about what a grade boundary is, check out this article by Third Space Learning.
The general trend is that the foundation paper will have a much higher grade boundary than the higher paper, likely due to it being designed to be simpler. Due to being compulsory subjects to study at GCSE, the best examples of this are GCSE Maths and GCSE Combined Science. While GCSE English is also a compulsory GCSE, it doesn’t have higher and foundation tiers, which will be explained more later down in the article.
What are the foundation and higher tier grade boundaries for GCSE Maths?
To see how the GCSE Maths grade boundaries compare for foundation and higher exams, look at the following table. These will be for the pass mark of grade 4 for the main 3 exam boards, AQA, Pearson Edexcel and OCR. Please note that these are the grade boundaries for 2022.
|Foundation grade boundary||135||173||119|
|Higher grade boundary||51||71||45|
To learn more about these grade boundaries and more information about the grades and pass rate for GCSE Maths, check out this Think Student article. (Link to updated How Many Marks is it to Pass GCSE Maths?)
What are the foundation and higher tier grade boundaries for GCSE Combined Science?
To see how the GCSE Combined Science grade boundaries compare to each other, check out the following table for the main 3 exam boards. In this case, the pass mark being considered is 4-4 due to GCSE Combined Science being a double award. Please note that these are the grade boundaries for 2022.
|AQA (Trilogy)||AQA (Synergy)||Pearson Edexcel||OCR A||OCR B|
|Foundation grade boundary||203||207||164||162||185|
|Higher grade boundary||89||86||90||103||96|
What is foundation tier at GCSE?
As we’ve established how they’re different, it can help to summarise what the foundation tier at GCSE really means.
At GCSE level, the foundation tier is the course that is seen as easier. This is because it has less content and students won’t have to complete as much work for the course.
As mentioned above, this may also mean that students can study less difficult content and even the exam format may be more straightforward. This can help to explain why the grade boundaries for the foundation tier are so much higher than for the higher tier as we saw in the above sections.
To learn more about what the foundation paper or tier is, check out this Think Student article.
What are the pros and cons of foundation tier at GCSE?
The are many things that can be considered benefits or drawbacks of the foundation tier course. It will depend on who you are and what you are aiming for to see how much they relate to you.
Look at the following table to see a short summary of what I would consider the pros and cons of the foundation tier.
|Less content to cover gives students more time to revise.||Unable to achieve the top grades as maximum is grade C/ 5.|
|Content is generally easier as the harder content is often left out.||Higher grade boundaries so more marks are needed to pass.|
|Exam questions are often easier than for the higher paper.||Lower grades may limit future opportunities.|
Who would foundation tier suit?
As mentioned above, the foundation tier is seen as the easier one. This may make you wonder who this qualification is for and who it is supposed to suit. While there is no exact overall answer, to answer it for yourself, there are somethings that I think you should consider.
To begin with, whether you should do the foundation tier will depend on what you’re aiming for. This is because if you want to get higher grades than a 5/ C, then you will obviously need to do the higher tier in order to be able to do this.
Also, it’s important to think about what you want to do in the future. This is because for post-GCSE qualifications, such as A-Levels, some courses will require specific grades that may be above a 5.
What is higher tier at GCSE?
As opposed to the foundation tier, the higher tier paper is seen as being more difficult. This is due to there being more content, which is often more advanced, and the exam format being more difficult too.
As mentioned above, this is likely what caused the higher tier grade boundaries to generally be so low, particularly for subjects like GCSE Maths, where in 2022, the higher tier grade boundaries for a grade 4 were less than half that of the foundation tier.
The higher tier, of course, also allows students to access the top end of grades, due to this harder content as the grade is not capped. To learn more about this, check out this Think Student article.
What are the pros and cons of higher tier at GCSE?
Just like with the foundation tier, there are a range of pros and cons of taking the higher tier course. To learn what some of these are, look at the list of ones I consider most significant.
|Allows you to access the top grades.||Content is generally more difficult and may be inaccessible for some students.|
|Harder content can be challenging, which some students may enjoy.||More content can mean less time to revise.|
|Lower grade boundaries can make passing easier for students with strong academic ability.||Exam questions are often more complex, which can make answering questions and gaining marks more difficult.|
Who would higher tier suit?
Higher tier courses are designed to be more difficult and so they would generally be more suited to students with more academic ability or who are very good at a specific subject. This is because it can enable them to access the top grades. When considering which students are “more suited” to higher tier courses, it seems likely that they would be the students who would be able to access the higher grades in exams.
Due to allowing students to access higher grades, it may also be more suited for students who have clear plans for their future education. This is because sixth forms and colleges will often have grade requirements for specific courses, especially for one like A-Level Maths. Also, if you’re thinking further into the future, some universities look at what grades you got at GCSE as part of their entry requirements.
Which GCSEs have foundation and higher tier options?
Not all GCSE subjects will give you the option to do the foundation or higher tier. Due to this, it is important to know which ones will and which won’t so that you can be better prepared for your GCSEs.
The subjects that do offer foundation and higher tiers are as follows.
- GCSE Maths
- GCSE Combined Science
- GCSE Biology
- GCSE Chemistry
- GCSE Physics
- GCSE French
- GCSE German
- GCSE Mandarin
- GCSE Spanish
Some subjects that you might expect to be on there aren’t. For example, either GCSE English Language or GCSE English Literature, however for these subjects all students do the same paper.
Although this is slightly different for subjects, like GCSE English Literature where there is some variation based on which texts are studied. To learn more about these subjects, check out this Think Student article.